Private Limited Company is incorporated under the Companies Act, 2013. A public limited company shares are traded on a stock exchange, whereas Cooperative companies are those companies in which the ownership is not carried out for the benefit of a particular person or small group of individuals, but for the benefit of the whole community.

Any private business or a private limited company uses the term ‘private’ to demonstrate that their ownership is not traded on a public stock exchange. Known as privately held businesses, these firms tend to keep their business operations closed to only a few shareholders or owners. In most cases, private ownership means no shares are offered to the general public. Instead, they are retained by the company itself or its administrators/owners as part of an internal management control strategy/vision.

The rise of private limited companies can be linked to the augmentation in the startup ecosystem worldwide. We all have seen more and more people adapting to experienced methods and running their businesses. However, with this comes a great set of responsibilities. Running a business is not easy. Thus, one needs to be knowledgeable about the different business registration types, including sole proprietorships, limited liability firms, and other types of firms, including public and cooperative.

Public & Co-operative Companies

The market is booming, and so is the rise and need of public and co-op companies. Let’s understand them briefly:

Public Companies

As the name suggests, these are publicly traded firms where shareholders own a part of the company’s assets and profit. Here, the ownership is distributed among the general shareholders through OTC markets or free share trades of stock and exchanges. Public corporations must regularly open their businesses and finance-related information, unlike private companies. 


A cooperative company refers to a firm where people using its services and products are responsible for the functioning and operation; thus, they receive the profit. Various other factors differ between cooperatives from different types of firms. Read more to understand the difference between the three types of companies.

Suppose you want to fulfill your specific needs and work in a team. In that case, cooperative companies are the ideal option for you, as more and more people can operate them together and enjoy the benefits.

The Difference Between Public, Private, & Cooperative Companies

Based on the analysis and various factors, public, private, and cooperative companies differ significantly in their operation functionality: liabilities, shares, etc. The fundamental difference between a private and public limited company is its shares position. A private limited company does not trade its shares publicly and is not listed on stock exchanges. In contrast, public companies offer their shares publicly and are listed on a recognized stock exchange. Apart from this, the stakes are freely transferable in public companies and vice versa in terms of a private limited company. A private limited company offers benefits and immunities, whereas public limited companies do not. Cooperative companies differ completely as their primary drive is to allow maximum team participation based on equivalent promotion rather than a keen competition. Developing ethical values and work culture are other vital factors in cooperative companies. Private and public limited companies are not held privately or by the general public.

How To Register A Private Limited Company?

Before starting a private limited company, one needs to understand and scrutinize the process as each company comes with its own set of instructions, pros, and cons.

  1. To get legally registered, your firm needs to show a minimum of two or a maximum number of 200 members, which is a fundamental requirement (companies act 2013). The director must have a director identification number or DIN, received through the Ministry of corporate affairs. Not only this, one of the directors should be a resident of India. 
  1. The next step is to establish a company name. For naming a private limited company, three fundamental aspects should be analyzed: 
  • Primary name, the activity, and LTD at the end.
  • Remember, no two companies can have the same name. Hence one must send at least 5-6 names to ROC for approval at the company’s registration. Corporation registration includes the following steps:
  • You need to apply for DSC, DIN, NAME AVAILABILITY, FILLING EMoa, EAOA, PAN, TAN, Certificate of incorporation, and open a bank account in the company’s name. 
  1. Once the name is approved and the company is registered, the next step is to fill the permanent address of the office through the registrar of the company, where other documentation processes will be carried out.
  2. Finally, a digital signature certificate must be obtained for authentication, including details of the working professionals for document submission and verification.

Dearness Allowance for A Private Limited Company

The dearness allowance refers to a salary component at a fixed percentage, intending to hedge the impact of inflation. The Dearness allowance may vary from employee to employee, based on their geographical location. Hence, the component differs for employees in urban, rural, and semi-urban areas. 

Since 1996, DA has been compensating for inflation in a specific financial year, and it is revised twice every year. The cabinet approved an increase of 11% in DA and DR for central government employees and pensioners, with the DA rate going up by 17%.


Who controls a private limited company?

Shareholders control the private limited company. They are individuals or a group of members who access the firm’s shares. You can set up such a company yourself. You may decide whether you want to own 100% of the shares or want to divide the available shares between the shareholders.

What is the disadvantage of a private limited company?

Private limited companies limit shares transferability and provide a limit to shareholders’ numbers. You cannot go public, i.e, shares cannot be issued to the public. Moreover, the number of members in such a company cannot be more than 200.

Can one person run a private limited company?

A minimum of two directors and members are required to run a private limited company, with limited liability and a maximum employee rate of 200.

What are the advantages of a private limited company?

A private limited company has limited liability, few shareholders, ownership, and uninterrupted existence. One can simultaneously be a shareholder, creditor, director, and also an employee.

What are the main features of a private limited company?

There are many notable features. 

Limited Liability: Shares are the only liability of shareholders. Suppose the company faces any losses, then the shareholders will only be liable to the shares they hold. Their personal assets won’t be at risk. 

Register of Members: Such a company does not need to maintain a register of members of the company while a public limited company requires it.